. . . And indeed, these latest centuries merit praise because it is during them that the arts and sciences, discovered Iry the ancients, have been reduced to so great and constantlY increasing perfec tion through the investigations and experiments of clear-seeing minds. This development is particularlY evident in the case of the mathematical sciences. Here, without mentioning various men who have achieved success, we must without hesitation and with the unanimous approval of scholars assign the first place to Gali leo Galilei, Member of the Acadmry of the Lincei. This he de serves not onlY because he has effectivelY demonstrated faUacies in many of our current conclusions, as is amplY shown Iry his published works, but also Iry means of the telescope (invented in this country but greatlY perfected Iry him) he has discovered the four sateOites of Jupiter, has shown us the true character of the Milky wa and has made us acquainted with spots on the Sun, with the rough and cloudy portions of the lunar surface, with the threefold nature of Saturn, with the phases of Venus and with the physical character of comets. These matters were entirelY unknown to the ancient astronomers and philosophers; so that we may trulY say that he has restored to the world the science of astronomy and has presented it in a new light."