What role will the current evolution of banking systems play in the newly adopted EU countries during the historic challenges following enlargement? This book, a blend of economics and political economy, offers a systematic analysis of the current trends in financial intermediation in the countries of the newly enlarged Europe, with particular focus on those policies taken by foreign banks on the one hand, and by regulatory and supervisory authorities on the other. The authors argue that their research has led to one conclusion; in order to enter the EU, the accession countries needed to increase the efficiency of their economic systems rapidly through liberalization and privatization. The book assesses whether the presence of foreign banks will contribute to long term economic growth and financial stability, and how the architecture of banking regulations and supervision should be designed. As a multidisciplinary work, though principally economics, the book will appeal to scholars and academics of politics and law. as well as professionals including bankers, financial operators and also legal compliance officers.